The first design for an American car with a gasoline internal combustion engine was made in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York . Selden applied for a patent for a car in 1879, but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built. After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application, on 5 November 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent ( . Patent 549,160 ) for a two-stroke car engine, which hindered, more than encouraged , development of cars in the United States. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others, and overturned in 1911.
A sprawling pattern means that the road transportation system has to be lengthy, miles driven and delays due to traffic congestion are high, and transit becomes cost-ineffective because overall density is low. All of these add up to higher financial costs, either at the household level (for example, gasoline and automobile purchase and maintenance costs), or at the governmental level (for road building and repair, or for inefficient transit systems). Of course governmental costs then equate to taxpayer costs.