Japan. Angkor Wat was a Buddhist rather than a Hindu shrine. In the early centuries of the Christian Era, Buddhism spread eastward from India across China, becoming established in Japan by AD 600. There the Indian stupa reappeared in the similar but greatly transformed pagoda. The earliest and most perfect surviving example of the pagoda is that in the monastery of Horyuji, which was erected in 607. Built in 711, the pagoda is in wood, the primary material of construction in Japan. Its basic form is that of a house, repeated five times vertically. The spreading roof of each tier displays the characteristic construction in posts and lintels joined by elaborate brackets perfected in the houses and palaces of China and Japan. There is little internal space. A relic of the Buddha is set in the stone base of the tall pole that rises the entire height of the pagoda, emerging at the peak as a finial. Located around the base of the pole are four statues that face the four cardinal points.