In any community of scientists, Kuhn states, there are some individuals who are bolder than most. These scientists, judging that a crisis exists, embark on what Kuhn calls revolutionary science , exploring alternatives to long-held, obvious-seeming assumptions. Occasionally this generates a rival to the established framework of thought. The new candidate paradigm will appear to be accompanied by numerous anomalies, partly because it is still so new and incomplete. The majority of the scientific community will oppose any conceptual change, and, Kuhn emphasizes, so they should. To fulfill its potential, a scientific community needs to contain both individuals who are bold and individuals who are conservative. There are many examples in the history of science in which confidence in the established frame of thought was eventually vindicated. It is almost impossible to predict whether the anomalies in a candidate for a new paradigm will eventually be resolved. Those scientists who possess an exceptional ability to recognize a theory's potential will be the first whose preference is likely to shift in favour of the challenging paradigm. There typically follows a period in which there are adherents of both paradigms. In time, if the challenging paradigm is solidified and unified, it will replace the old paradigm, and a paradigm shift will have occurred.
The input to the tree construction stage is a sequence of tokens from the tokenization stage
The first mode is the "initial mode" . Receiving the html token will cause a move to the "before html" mode and a reprocessing of the token in that mode.
This will cause a creation of the HTMLHtmlElement element and it will be appended to the root Document object.
The state will be changed to "before head" . We receive the "body" token. An HTMLHeadElement will be created implicitly although we don't have a "head" token and it will be added to the tree.
We now move to the "in head" mode and then to "after head" . The body token is reprocessed, an HTMLBodyElement is created and inserted and the mode is transferred to "in body" .
The character tokens of the "Hello world" string are now received. The first one will cause creation and insertion of a "Text" node and the other characters will be appended to that node.
The receiving of the body end token will cause a transfer to "after body" mode. We will now receive the html end tag which will move us to "after after body" mode. Receiving the end of file token will end the parsing.
Figure 10: tree construction of example html
Water molecules interact strongly with ions , which are electrically-charged atoms or molecules. Dissolution of ordinary salt (NaCl) in water yields a solution containing the ions Na + and Cl – . Owing to its high polarity, the H 2 O molecules closest to the dissolved ion are strongly attached to it, forming what is known as the inner or primary hydration shell . Positively-charged ions such as Na + attract the negative (oxygen) ends of the H 2 O molecules, as shown in the diagram below. The ordered structure within the primary shell creates, through hydrogen-bonding, a region in which the surrounding waters are also somewhat ordered; this is the outer hydration shell, or cybotactic region.