Some “Pathos” but emphasis is on “Logos ”—Appeal to logical reasoning and evidence (., Facts, Examples, Historical and Legal Precedents) “Ethos”—Appeal to writer’s or speaker’s character, credentials, trustworthiness “Ethos”— Appeal to writer’s or speaker’s credibility (more so than character); credibility is established through knowledge of subject matter and merits of reasons and factual evidence Persuasive texts may make an “argument,” but they don’t always include elements of a formal argument Include the following elements of Argument: Warrants (Statements about How Evidence Supports Claims) Backing (Support for Warrants) May not take opposing views into account Counterclaim (Opposing Argument) Rebuttals (Respond to and Try to Refute) Heart of Critical Thinking The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University is also a helpful resource for getting started with this type of writing, among other things. Writing at the next level for our students whether for college or for life, is argumentative. I would argue that all writing is argumentative — creating a solid thesis, and then defending it with evidence is an invaluable skill. We should know why we think what we think and be able to support that, not only with emotion, but with evidence.
The function of an argumentative essay is to show that your assertion (opinion, theory, hypothesis) about some phenomenon or phenomena is correct or more truthful than others'. The art of argumentation is not an easy skill to acquire. Many people might think that if one simply has an opinion, one can argue it successfully, and these folks are always surprised when others don't agree with them because their logic seems so correct. Argumentative writing is the act of forming reasons, making inductions, drawing conclusions, and applying them to the case in discussion; the operation of inferring propositions, not known or admitted as true, from facts or principles known, admitted, or proved to be true. It clearly explains the process of your reasoning from the known or assumed to the unknown. Without doing this you do not have an argument, you have only an assertion, an essay that is just your unsubstantiated opinion.